At PREPMUN, we look toward providing an open, inclusive space that enables youth of all walks of life, curating resources that aptly equips our participants through our conference platform. Hence, we structure our committees under categories, ensuring that moderation of discourse and academic rigour is tailored towards unlocking the potential in every individual here at our conference..
As our name itself suggests, PREPMUN is the leading conference that inducts youth into the Model UN space, welcoming youths who have interest in this area, or simply wish to discover new experiences. Category A (click to view further details!) caters to beginner delegates who are just starting out Model UN.
For youth that have recently joined the circuit and wish to explore committees that create space for perspectives beyond the conventional General Assembly committees, Category B (click to view further details!) is suited for intermediate delegates with some prior experience and wish to try something different while continuing to learn the ropes of debate in MUN.
Advanced delegates with numerous experiences under their belt hoping to put themselves up for a challenge this December can look at Category C (click to view further details!), with committees catering to an environment of greater academic rigour and depth in moderation of discourse.
For intermediate or advanced delegates interested in trying a committee setting completely different from convention, with discourse moderated through specialised procedures and dynamic settings, we have a Crisis (click to view further details!) committee as well.
A1: United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA)
The Question of Marine Pollution
Founded in 2012, the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) aims to form an effective organisation of international environmental governance. It is the highest official body regarding environmental issues and affairs and functions as a forum and a decision-making body. At the UNEA, representatives of the 193 Member States of the United Nations gather to highlight the most important environmental issues and form the infrastructure for future environmental governance, as well as spur the international community to take action.
With marine pollution killing more than a million seabirds each year, it is evidently a topic that is becoming increasingly pressing to discuss. While the issue seems to be limited to oil spills and plastic on the surface, there is much more depth to uncover in discourse. Sound and thermal pollution from various underwater activities, marine debris, as well as chemical pollution all contribute to jeopardising our marine biodiversity. Beyond the marine borders, human communities have also suffered the impact of the pollution of our once pristine blue waters as pollutants infiltrate the oceans, contaminating water supplies. Delegates will have to withstand the currents of this intriguing problem and weave their way through debate as they attempt to reach a much-needed resolution.
A2: Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
The Question of Sustainable Food Production
The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations tasked with solving global food security, promoting sustainable agriculture, and eradicating hunger. To do this, the FAO collaborates closely with governments, organisations, and people throughout the world to improve agricultural practices, increase food production, and guarantee everyone has access to safe and nutritious food. In doing so, they work to eliminate hunger, increase sustainability, and promote food security through its programmes and initiatives.
With the increase in population and globalisation, human activities have had a substantial impact on the climate and the planet since the 1950s. Industrialisation led to an increase in overfishing because of growing material and food needs. Similarly, deforestation was spurred by the need for land and resources, which led to destruction of habitats, soil erosion, and ecological imbalances. To do this, farmers have relied on methods such as the slash-and-burn techniques, which are frequently used for inexpensive land clearance, contributing to concerns like smog and health hazards. Profit and scale-driven monocropping in agriculture has also led to concerns like disease, higher risk of pests, and biodiversity loss. To solve the problem of sustainable agricultural practices, delegates will thoroughly examine the root causes of this issue.
A3: International Labour Organisation (ILO)
The Question of the Rights of Migrant Workers
An agency of the UN, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) strives to promote the rights, employment opportunities, and social protection of workers. With 187 member states, the ILO devises programmes, develops policies, and works with governments, employers and workers, to promote decent work for all. The ILO works on a tripartite structure, consisting of the following main bodies: the International Labour Conference, the Governing Body, and the International Labour Office. Through this structure, the ILO aims to facilitate dialogue on workers' rights, fair employment, and other issues pertaining to labour.
The concept of migration has been around for generations, and migrant workers play important roles in helping a nation develop economically. Migrant workers make up a large proportion of a country’s labour force, yet are forced to contend with unfair working conditions. These include low wages, unfair treatment from employers, and social discrimination, with some extreme cases involving a breach of humanitarian rights. Given the significant contributions of migrant workers to their receiving states, it is without a doubt that they deserve the same humane treatment that local workers receive. With an ever-changing political and economic situation, it is essential for the International Labour Organisation to take an effective, multifaceted approach in tackling this issue.
A4: Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)
The Question of the Demilitarisation of Space
The Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC) is one of six main committees of the United Nations General Assembly. The DISEC deals with disarmament and global security issues that threaten the international community and aims to formulate solutions to such challenges. The DISEC is mandated to promote and facilitate dialogue related to international security issues falling into one or several of seven thematic clusters, including nuclear weapons, disarmament of outer space, and regional disarmament. Through high-level debate and action on drafts, the DISEC aims to foster international cooperation on international security issues in order to formulate solutions to tackle key global and regional security problems.
Space, a vast global common open and free for use by all countries, is quickly becoming the newest theatre for military activities. With the alarming proliferation of military infrastructure and weapons in space, the increased militarisation of space within recent years poses a significant threat to global security. From vague treaties on regulation and a general lack of governance, there stands pressing issues that threaten the balance of peace and safety in space, requiring urgent attention of the international community and particularly of the First Committee.
A5: International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
The Question of Cybersecurity Development
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the oldest specialised agency of the United Nations, having first been founded in 1865. The ITU is instrumental in facilitating international cooperation to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, with its global reach and inclusive membership of 193 member states allowing it to play a vital role in shaping the future of telecommunications. On this issue, the ITU can not only facilitate partnerships between different states, but also increase participation of private enterprises to better support countries in their preparation against cyberattacks, and further normative talks and general improvements to resolve this issue.
With the digitalisation of the global economy and constant technological advancements, cyberattacks have become increasingly common, causing billions in damages worldwide. Between poorly secured government and corporate facilities, hackers could potentially compromise millions of peoples’ personal information, leading to worldwide ramifications which include stunted economic growth and complex social issues. As such, it is evident that the lack of an internationally recognised and agreed upon framework for cybersecurity has slowed down the international response to the issue. Delegates must work toward ensuring the increased safety of everyone in the world, allowing for greater connectivity through better digital infrastructure.
A6: Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM)
The Question of Organ Trafficking
The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM) is the third committee of the United Nations General Assembly, and aims to design peaceful resolutions for issues within the large spectrum of social, humanitarian, and cultural complications in the international community.
Organ Trafficking, an issue which transcends national borders, is a pressing matter that requires urgent and swift action. The dire exploitation of persons for illicit organ use or financial gain is just one of the many unjust and unethical areas delegates will have the opportunity to speak on in SOCHUM. With lower-income groups as the main victims of organ trade and others duped into selling their organs due to a lack of accurate information, organ traffickers exploit such vulnerable groups and takes advantage of many.
There is a pressing need for international action so that countries have the opportunity to combat organ trafficking in their states. Delegates will have the opportunity to understand potential solutions, ultimately analysing their feasibility for implementation.
A7: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
The Question of Promoting Equitable Access to Quality Education
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) was founded in November 1945. Headquartered in Paris, it seeks to unite people and promote peace through education, the sciences, and culture. Aside from its more widely-known work in culture with initiatives such as the UNESCO World Heritage List, UNESCO also plays an important role in the work in scientific standard-setting, ethics, and education. Specifically, it has spearheaded efforts to reform education throughout the world and equip students with the necessary skill sets in a rapidly-evolving global climate. Through actions such as the leading of the Education 2030 agenda to eradicate poverty and its coordination with the international community to achieve the targets of SDG 4 (Quality education for all), peace and common understandings have proliferated amongst a global society, raising the quality of life of the masses.
Education - the gateway to opportunity, and a promoter of empowerment and upwards mobility for all. Yet, inequality exists in the very social institution that exists to equalise. Despite previous attempts to universalise education, 78 million children are still deprived of schooling, for reasons ranging from conflicts to socio-economic inequalities. Even for schooling children, quality is often compromised in developing areas, causing suboptimal educational outcomes, which perpetuates the cycle of poverty and inequality. Through debate and discourse, delegates will delve into the complex world of educational inequalities and its detrimental consequences, and work to lay the foundation for a more inclusive and equitable society. Education has the potential to open new doors to opportunities and promote a better future for all, where no student is left behind - but if left in its current state, it could become a forever-inaccessible resource to millions of children.
A8: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
The Question of Forced Prostitution
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is a global network central to the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), and has strong partnerships with other UN councils, governments of member states, and other institutions. Through such collaborations, it plays an imperative advisory role in pushing for the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals, primarily assisting countries in poverty alleviation, democratic governance, environmental sustainability, and gender equality, which are part of their signature solutions. The UNDP is crucial in bridging the gap between countries and fostering international cooperation for sustainable development, and delegates will have the power to make use of its resources to advocate for and assist countries in implementing policy.
Forced prostituted persons remain to be a vulnerable group of society that are often considered a taboo, meaning that discussion remains to be limited and neglected. However, there is still a need to protect these persons from the infringement of their existing human and health rights. Considering circumstances beyond child trafficking and human labour that drive them into forced prostitution, such as poverty and gender inequality and health risks they may face, delegates will grapple with the dark truth behind forced prostitution. While challenging delegates to protect the rights of the forced prostituted persons, this topic gives delegate the task to forge a pathway for the development of humanity.
A9: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
The Question of Illicit Ownership of Firearms
In 1997, the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme merged, leading to the establishment of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime which aimed to focus and enhance its capacity to tackle the issues of drug control, crime and international terrorism. By combating such threats, the UNODC actively works towards achieving health, security and justice for all. Hence, delegates must rise to the occasion, ensuring the UNODC effectively deals with the threats our world faces today.
For many years, the illicit ownership of firearms has been a prevalent global issue. With the rise of undetectable areas of the dark web, the difficulty in curbing underground vendors and more of Small and Light Weapons (SALW) has led to the implementation of several international actions such as the Firearms Protocol. While these measures have contributed to the destruction of some unlisted firearms, the lack of reliable information on the production and distribution of such illicitly owned arms is present. With the continued struggle in tackling channels of distribution and the purchase of firearms, coming to an agreement on these stringent issues will surely be no easy feat. Delegates must quickly find solutions while considering their country’s best interests, all before the world succumbs to the consequences.
B1: Council of the European Union (COEU)
In the heart of Europe, where nations converge and decisions are forged, lies a powerhouse of Governance—the Council of the European Union (COEU). Established in 1967, the COEU is one of the seven principal institutions of the European Union (EU), tasked with debating on legislation proposed by the European Council and the European Commission (EC), aiming to promte peace and the well-being of its people. Representing the 27 Member States of the EU, the COEU treasures the cooperation forged between these diverse sovereign nations, a bond which forms the World’s largest trading bloc and third-largest economy—a pivotal leverage it frequently wields to achieve its aims. Ministers, you decide the direction of the COEU, and in turn the fate of Europe.
In an era where military deterrence is becoming relatively phased-out as a concept, nations have invested more focus on the stringent usage of economic sanctions to deter antagonism from organisations and states perceived as belligerent.
Nearly a decade has passed since the beginning of the Russo-Ukrainian War, and two years since the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Ten separate sanctions packages have since been implemented, with the COEU currently debating on an eleventh package. With the past ten packages having achieved no substantial results and a domestic energy crisis on the horizon, it is time for the COEU to review their sanctions on Russia, and whether the EU should tighten or lift said sanctions.
Established in 2021 by the EC, the Global Gateway is an international investment initiative aimed at promoting green, democratic and secure economic development and partnership among the EU and its economic partners. Against the backdrop of the EU and NATO’s geopolitical rivalry with China, the Global Gateway serves as the EU’s answer to China's Belt and Road Initiative, holding strong leverage as the only major investment initiative without ties to the United States or China. However, the Global Gateway currently stands in a state of redundancy, its foundations built upon existing initiatives that would have prevailed even without its involvement. The Global Gateway’s position in the world must be immediately revised for its sustainable existence.
The Question of Sanctions on the Russian Federation
The Question of Expanding the Global Gateway
B2: Organisation of American States (OAS)
Welcome to this thrilling PREPMUN committee, where delegates will gather to discuss critical matters concerning the Organization of American States (OAS). Established in 1948, the OAS is a forum for the nations of the Americas to come together and address regional challenges, promote cooperation, and uphold shared values of democracy, human rights, and development. As delegates, your participation and engagement will change the fate of this diverse group of member states.
Democracy has long been an issue at the front and center of discussions and debate in the OAS. It is one of the OAS’ main objectives to promote and strengthen democracy in the Americas, as well as ensure good governance across all OAS members. The quality of democracy in the Americas is still declining, with more than half of the democracies in Latin America and the Caribbean exhibiting indicators of democratic degradation.
Delegates, it is your job to assist in smoothing out the political processes of all member states. It is up to you to decide how this will be done. Look back at past legislation and determine what is still relevant and what needs to be strengthened to meet the changing needs of the new political climate!
In a world where drugs are used both pharmaceutically and recreationally, the line for drug usage has been muddied by its propensity for misuse, especially in the Americas. The scourge of drug abuse is enabled by the American drug trade, which provides a channel to supply illicit psychoactives to the general populace. Powered by brutal cartels and fuelled by corrupt officials, the drug trade looms like a dark cloud over the Americas.
The OAS is tasked with assessing how transit routes and international cooperations may be monitored to curb the trade of illicit drugs. Delegates in the OAS will be challenged to revise existing frameworks and devise new ways to impede the drug trade in order to reduce to prevalence of drug misuse.
The Question of Upholding Democracy in the Americas
The Question of the Illicit Drug Trade in the Americas
B3: Group of Twenty (G20)
Since its founding in 1999 as a force for sustainable development and economic growth, the G20 has remained resolute in its mission to improve worldwide standards of living through globalisation. At PREPMUN 2023, delegates of the G20 can expect intriguing debates about amendments to an international framework, working with different regional bodies to tackle the various issues from regulation and usage of AI to curbing corruption in the 21st century. An international community made up of members with varied interests, ranging from less developed to more developed countries and a wide array of stakes in both topics, the G20 offers an exciting learning opportunity for all delegates in attendance.
Corruption has plagued humanity for as long as mankind has known greed. However, despite the various measures that different countries have put into tackling the issue of corruption, there still has been an increasing amount of corruption in various countries. The up-and-rising economy and international tensions are all factors that may worsen the issue of corruption. While the G20 has previously established an Anti-Corruption Working Group as well as regular Anti-Corruption Action Plans, these pose a mere inconvenience to the global scourge of corruption. Delegates must work together to formulate substantive plans to allow all countries to be on the same page in the fight to eradicate corruption in countries around the world.
From immigration to the entertainment industry, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) has entered a state of ubiquity in the international community. The role of AI has evolved from its original function of improving productivity and efficiency to now acting as a tool to attain the sustainability goals established by the United Nations. On the flip side, socioeconomic impacts associated with the use of AI have become more pronounced than ever. With AI poised to become omnipresent in our lives, countries need to be able to stay on top of this tool and ensure that it is used most efficiently. Delegates must strike a balance between the risks of AI with the potential boons in a bid to integrate AI with G20’s sustainable development efforts.
The Question of Corruption
The Question of Artificial Intelligence
B4: African Union (AU)
The African Union (AU) was established in 2002 as the successor to the Organisation of African Unity. Its roles and duties include working towards integration, peace and security, democracy and human rights. Though originally established to be a primarily economic council, this Committee will focus on the long-term issues of Terrorism and Coups. Delegates will navigate the dynamic, nuanced nature of national security, foreign intervention, political structures and relations with suspended member states. In doing so, delegates will be challenged to work towards a consensus while striking a balance between the need for compromise and each delegate’s national interests.
Terrorism has long plagued the African continent, claiming thousands of lives and causing untold suffering for all. Yet, it was not until the September 11, 2001 attacks that Africa began to stand united against Islamic terrorism. Even so, the continent continues to be divided in their counter-terrorism initiatives. Foreign intervention remains controversial due to Africa’s brutal colonial past, with nations meeting foreign aid with suspicion. Despite expressing unity towards eradicating terrorism, the efforts to take a region-wide cooperative step towards such a goal has largely stalled among African states. While the AU deliberates on these issues, they must consider and act quickly to stem the growing refugee crisis caused by the violence as well.
Zimbabwe. Sudan. Mali. Threatened by a neverending spectre of military takeovers, states across the vast expanses of the AU have capitulated to coup after coup. Each time, confidence erodes, institutions collapse and citizens are marginalised. Despite international condemnations, frozen diplomatic ties and sanctions, the cycle continues relentlessly, and more and more states appear doomed to follow the same path.
With calls for the AU to take decisive action in the wake of a string of coups and democratic backsliding in its member states, the need to devise creative and effective solutions to combat authoritarian tendencies in the African political sphere has never been greater. Can you stop these coups and rebuild the shared dream of pan-African democracy? The fate of a continent rests in your hands.
The Question of Countering Terrorism in Africa
The Question of Coup Prevention
C1: United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
The UNSC is one of the six principal organs of the UN and is tasked with the maintenance of international peace and security. One of the most powerful institutions in the world due to its possession of judicial, legislative and executive power, it has been described as being “unbound by law”.
Whether it be the presence of five permanent members with the ability to veto resolutions with a dissenting vote, its special rules of procedure or the complex academic nature of the issues covered under its mandate, the UNSC has gained notoriety in the Model UN community as a particularly challenging committee to navigate. Mastery over the minutiae of peacekeeping, sovereignty and geopolitical power balancing – and perhaps a healthy understanding of international law – is showcased through intense debates in simulations of the committee.
To all prospective UNSC delegates: come… if you're up for the challenge.
The roots of unrest in Sudan have been manifested through bloody conflicts like the War in Darfur, and political crises like southern secession and the Arab Spring. The re-emergence of conflict in 2023 is in many ways a continuation of past unrest. A political power struggle between the Sudanese government and the Rapid Support Forces are causing refugees to spill across borders and peacemaking efforts to fall through once more.
With the situation threatening to spill across North Africa, the conflict in Sudan presents several conundrums. It questions the possibility of establishing ceasefires in situations where belligerents are adamantly committed to their causes. It challenges the framework provided by the Capstone Doctrine. It fosters debate about whether the international community has a duty to intervene in conflicts on a humanitarian basis.
Will delegates find a way to reach a sustainable settlement in Sudan, or will peace evade Sudan once more?
Sanctions are amongst the most powerful tools when the international community has to deal with extreme crises such as genocidal warfare or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The only tools stronger than sanctions are authorised military inventions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, something the international community rarely agrees to. Sanctions, in contrast, are a strong response, but less dangerous or destructive than going to war.
However, the most visible problems come when sanctions impede the flow of humanitarian assistance. Sanction dilemmas have become more public and controversial in recent years, just as sanctions become more commonly used. Solutions to this problem are not easy. International sanctions are losing their support, leaving the UNSC with fewer alternatives in any crisis that are short of going to war.
In light of this prevailing issue within one of UNSC’s own response mechanisms, will delegates be able to reach a common ground on this universal crisis response and fully address the concerns it carries with regards to humanity?
The Question of Building Peace in Sudan
The Question of Humanitarian Exceptions to UN Sanctions Regimes
C2: United States Senate (USS)
The United States Senate – historically coined as the world’s ‘greatest deliberative body’ – is now a legislative wasteland. In Congress, states are each represented by two Senators in the upper chamber, regardless of size or population, amounting the total number of senators across the 50 states in the US to a hundred. Each Senator serves six-year terms, encouraging more thorough deliberation over legislative matters and appointments, ensuring less susceptibility to the all-to-often fickle will of the people; this contrasts with the larger House of Representatives, where Congressmen, facing re-election every two years, are more directly exposed to the ebb and flow of popular opinion. However, an increasingly partisan Senate has hindered its ability to pass legislative bills, resulting in the mere approval of budget bills as well as executive and judicial nominee confirmation in recent years. Consequently, this has resulted in an alarming neglect of societal needs and representation.
In 2008, Barack Obama won a landslide election against John McCain for the White House. Among the nationwide reforms, the then-President’s most prominent change was healthcare. Previously, the public healthcare system operated under free-market principles, with little to no government support. As such, low-income Americans who lacked private insurance often found difficulty in accessing healthcare. Furthermore, profit-seeking insurers are often reluctant to offer affordable coverage to Americans with pre-existing conditions. Moreover, the healthcare market's multifaceted nature, with stakeholders ranging from drug makers to pharmacists, adds to the reform complexity. Thus, any reform effort would require a balance between averting exploitation by monopolies, while still ensuring the financial viability and competitiveness of these companies.
The Question of the Affordable Care Act (2008)
Historical Crisis Committee
Presidium of the 20th Congress of the CPSU
The Presidium, successor of the Politburo, is the highest decision-making organ of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and is elected by the Central Committee of the current Congress.
At PREPMUN 2023, delegates will assume themselves as Party officials of the 20th Presidium. As Nikita Khrushchev makes his secret speech denouncing the late Premier Stalin post-20th Congress, creating a dichotomy between reforms and dissent, it is now up to the delegates to decide the trajectory of this 34-year-old nation. As the USSR stands at yet another crossroads, delegates will navigate themselves between complicated party-state relations, tread the thin water of the Cold War, and most importantly, come up with policies to tackle domestic outrage and international criticism. The Historical Crisis Committee is for anyone up for a challenge, and an interest in this period of history.